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1. Post-edition at Unbabel
At Unbabel we have a unique approach to translation: each text submitted by a customer is translated by our Machine Translation system, and then corrected by our community of editors in an online platform. By editing the output of the software, the editors ensure the quality of the translations and confirm that the message is accurate (i.e., has the same meaning as the original), fluent (i.e., can be easily understood and sounds natural) and is in line with the style requested by the clients (i.e. respects their register and terminology). In order to help editors do the best job possible, we provide various types of information:
- Customer instructions, which include the identification of the client and his requests to personalize the translation, such as the register that must be used to address the recipient of the message. Following these instructions is vital to deliver translations that match the client’s expectations.
- Glossaries, which correspond to specific vocabulary and expressions used by the client, and that must be respected by the editors.
- Translation Memories, which correspond to stored segments (expressions, sentences or paragraphs) that have previously been translated and accepted for customer usage. They are useful for ensuring consistency across translations.
We also have Smartcheck, which is an application that checks the grammar, morphology, orthography and style of the translations while being edited. By using a large set of rules, Smartcheck flags words or groups of words that may present some kind of issue.
Finally, in order to deliver the best possible translation, we also provide these guidelines about your language specifications. Please, read them carefully and always follow these instructions in your editions.
2.1.1. Tense, mood, aspect, person (for verbs)
Verbs must agree with their subjects in person and number, and with past and passive participles also in gender. Pay special attention to constructions when there is no overt subject in the clause, and the verb must agree with the subject from another clause.
Source text: She came home and fed the dog.
✘ Přišla domů a nakrmil psa.
✓ Přišla domů a nakrmila psa.
When the subject is a combination of objects of various genders, masculine animate gender is prior to others.
Source text: Marek and Eva returned home.
✘ Marek a Eva se vrátily domů.
✓ Marek a Eva se vrátili domů.
If there is no masculine gender present, feminine genders are prior to the neuter gender.
Source text: Cats and kittens were playing.
✘ Kočky a koťata si hrála.
✓ Kočky a koťata si hrály.
2.1.2. Gender and number (nouns and adjectives)
Adjectives modifying nouns must agree with them in gender, number and case.
Source text: That is Petr's new, expensive house.
✘ To je Petrův nová a drahá dům.
✓ To je Petrův nový a drahý dům.
Certain body parts (which are composed by two elements: eyes, ears, shoulders) and their modifying adjectives require dual forms.
Source text: He picked it up with both hands.
✘ Zvednul to oběma rukami.
✘ Zvednul to oběma rucemi.
✓ Zvednul to oběma rukama.
2.1.3. Case (nouns and prepositions)
When connecting individual phrases, it is very common that some repeating parts are left out to make a sentence shorter. If it leads to a wrong grammatical case, it is better to repeat the word and make some stylistic changes, e.g. use a pronoun instead of a proper name.
Source text: I met and talked to Zuzana yesterday.
✘ Včera jsem viděl a mluvil se Zuzanou.
✘ Včera jsem viděl Zuzanu a mluvil se Zuzanou.
✓ Včera jsem viděl Zuzanu a mluvil s ní.
Every Czech preposition determines the grammatical case, and therefore the suffix of the noun that follows it. Make sure that the case of the word after a preposition is correct. See the example with a preposition pro (‘for’) that requires genitive and proti (‘against’) that is followed by dative case.
Source text: They will vote for or against the proposal.
✘ Budou hlasovat pro, nebo proti návrhu.
✘ Budou hlasovat pro návrh, nebo proti návrhu.
✓ Budou hlasovat pro návrh, nebo proti němu.
Determiners are words that define a noun as specific or unspecific. Czech does not have articles, unlike English. If it does not lead to ambiguities, articles should not be translated.
Source text: When I came back in the evening, I found out that the cat had scratched the sofa.
✘ Když jsem se ten večer vrátil, zjistil jsem, že ta kočka poškrábala tu pohovku.
✓ Když jsem se večer vrátil, zjistil jsem, že kočka poškrábala pohovku.
English texts may require personal possessive pronouns (‘your’, ‘his’, etc.) to be present; however, they may not be necessary for Czech. If it does not lead to ambiguities, it is better to remove them to make the sentence sound more natural.
Source text: Turn on your phone.
✘ Zapněte si váš telefon.
✓ Zapněte si telefon.
It is very common that prepositions are a part of a compound adverb. If so, it is written together without any separator or whitespace.
Source text: She plays tennis every other day.
✘ Hraje tenis ob den.
✓ Hraje tenis obden.
Source text: I will do it later.
✘ Udělám to po tom.
✓ Udělám to potom.
Sometimes, both variants are tolerated with some very frequent words.
Source text: Take, for example, this hospital.
✓ Uveďme na příklad tuto nemocnici.
✓ Uveďme například tuto nemocnici.
Although mostly orthographical, errors in meaning may arise especially when misplacing an expression: v celku ('in one piece’) and vcelku (‘quite’).
Source text: He came home in one piece.
✘ Dorazil domů vcelku.
✓ Dorazil domů v celku.
Source text: He is quite extraordinary.
✘ Je v celku výjimečný.
✓ Je vcelku výjimečný.
If we want to convey a meaning of ‘with me’, the preposition s must be always added.
Source text: I will take it with me.
✘ Vezmu to sebou.
✓ Vezmu to s sebou.
Pay particular attention to prepositions in following common expressions.
source text: who with whom
✘ Kdo z koho
✓ Kdo s koho
Source text: He is up for it.
✘ Je z to to udělat.
✓ Je s to to udělat.
Source text: Goodbye.
✓ Na shledanou.
Source text: Unlike you, she is nice to animals.
✘ Narozdíl od tebe je milá ke zvířatům.
✓ Na rozdíl od tebe je milá ke zvířatům.
In most subject-predicative clauses, personal pronouns are not expressed as the person is expressed by the verb affix. Please note that the usage of first-person pronouns should be decided on a case-by-case basis.
Source text: I agree that you’re right.
✘ Já souhlasím, že ty máš pravdu.
✓ Souhlasím, že máš pravdu.
Make sure that the pronoun 'I’ is in the correct case. Genitive (2. pád) and Accusative (4. pád) forms should be written as mě. Dative (3. pád) and Locative (6. pád) should be mně. You can encounter the form mne, that is considered dated.
Source text: She went there without me.
✘ Šla tam beze mně.
✘ Šla tam beze mne.
✓ Šla tam beze mě.
Source text: Are you talking about me?
✘ Mluvíte o mě?
✘ Mluvíte o mne?
✓ Mluvíte o mně?
Errors in meaning arise when misplacing a possessive pronoun svůj with other pronouns. We only use svůj in cases when a subject of a sentence is an owner of the mentioned object.
Source text: She went there with her (own) car.
✘ Jela tam jejím autem.
✓ Jela tam svým autem.
Source text: She went there with her (someone else's) car.
✓ Jela tam jejím autem.
The verb form of a conditional mood in Czech has multiple variants when spoken, but there is only one officially accepted written form.
Source text: We would go there.
✘ My by jsme tam šli.
✘ My bysme tam šli.
✓ My bychom tam šli.
Abbreviations are based on the initial letters of a term: AIDS, NASA, USA, UK. With these terms, written in full capitals without any spaces, no full stops are used.
Source text: The U.S.A. and the U.K., the U.N. adopted a new strategy.
✘ U.S.A., U.K. a O.S.N. přijali novou strategii.
✓ USA, UK a OSN přijali novou strategii.
Other abbreviated words are followed by a full stop with a whitespace. If they are at the end of a sentence, do not use double full stop.
Source text: I like Impressionist painters, e.g. Monet or Renoir.
✘ Mám rád impresionistické malíře, např Moneta nebo Renoira.
✓ Mám rád impresionistické malíře, např. Moneta nebo Renoira.
Source text: Caesar invaded Britain in 54 BCE.
✘ Caesar napadl Británii v roce 54 př n l.
✘ Caesar napadl Británii v roce 54 př. n. l..
✓ Caesar napadl Británii v roce 54 př. n. l.
Some abbreviations should be expanded if there is no standard abbreviation in Czech.
Source text: 2 oz.
✘ 2 oz.
✓ 2 unce
Please pay particular attention to a Czech word viz. It is an imperative form of a verb vidět. Therefore, it is not an abbreviation and should never be followed by a full stop.
Source text: See page 5.
✘ Viz. strana 5.
✓ Viz strana 5.
You can only encounter apostrophes in foreign proper names and it should not be removed. Also, there is no whitespace between the apostrophe and the following word. The apostrophe (') should not be mistaken with a Czech diacritic accent of vowel length (´) as used in á.
Source text: Comte d’Artagnan.
✘ Hrabě d´Artagnan.
✓ Hrabě d'Artagnan.
Capitalization in Czech should apply to proper names only (i.e. names of people, organizations, geographical entities, etc.). Common names normally should not be capitalized. Note that in English, certain common names (such as weekdays, months, nationalities, languages, cardinal points, etc.) are written with a capital letter. These must not be capitalized in Czech. Complete rules of capitalization are covered in Internetová jazykové příručka.
Source text: He started studying Japanese in October.
✘ Začal studovat Japonštinu v Říjnu.
✓ Začal studovat japonštinu v říjnu.
It is common in English to capitalize all major words in a title. This should not be reflected in the Czech translation.
Source text: You should read The Old Man and the Sea.
✘ Měla by sis přečíst Starce a Moře.
✓ Měla by sis přečíst Starce a moře.
Source text: Twenty Students Graduate with Honors
✘ Dvacet Studentů Odpromovalo s Vyznamenáním
✓ Dvacet studentů odpromovalo s vyznamenáním
Proper nouns in English stay capitalized in all cases. This is not the case in Czech – they lose the capital letter when used as adjectives.
Source text: She was with her French friend.
✘ Byla tam se svou Francouzskou kamarádkou.
✓ Byla tam se svou francouzskou kamarádkou.
In some cases, hyphen is used to link parts of a compound word. If the suffix of a coordinative compound ends in -sko, -cko, -ně or -ově, a hyphen needs to be used as a separator. If the first constituent ends in any other suffix, use no separator. Be careful to always use the hyphen symbol (-) and not a longer dash (–).
Source text: focused on literature and music at the same time
✘ literárně - hudební
Source text: deaf-mute
If the constituents of a compound are not in a coordinative relationship, a hyphen is not used.
Source text: Latin American music
✘ latinsko-americká hudba
✓ latinskoamerická hudba
If the compound is created by using a numeral, use no hyphen and do not add the suffixes -ti or -mi. It is acceptable to use a digit to express the numeral.
Source text: 5 fingered creature
✘ 5ti prstá příšera
✘ 5ti-prstá příšera
✘ 5-prstá příšera
✓ 5prstá příšera
✓ pětiprstá příšera
Text without diacritics is only acceptable in personal and quick communication. Omitting diacritics should not be a part of official translations. When in doubt, please consult with Slovník spisovného jazyka českého.
If you encounter a foreign name with a symbol that is not usually used in Czech and could cause confusion, feel free to replace it with the closest Czech letter.
Source text: He visited Białystok.
✓ Navštívil Białystok.
✓ Navštívil Bialystok.
3.6. Foreign words
Whenever available, always follow the customer guidelines and the glossary regarding foreign words. Words from languages that do not use Latin script should be transcribed with Czech transcription. This is especially important for Russian and other Slavic languages, Arabic, Chinese and Japanese words. Other languages offer a bigger variability but should be also transcribed using Czech transcription, if there is one.
Source text: Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky
✘ Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky
✓ Fjodor Michajlovič Dostojevskij
Source text: The Chinese President, Xi Jinping
✘ Čínský prezident, Xi Jinping
✓ Čínský prezident, Si Ťin-pching
Source text: He went to Japan and visited Nagoya.
✘ Jel do Japonska a navštívil Nagoyu.
✓ Jel do Japonska a navštívil Nagoju.
Regarding numerals format (written in numbers or words), you must always respect the source text: if they are written as digits in the source text, this should be maintained in the translation; on the other hand, if they are written as words, they should be translated to the target language.
In the English-speaking world, it is common to use commas every three decimal places in numbers of four or more digits. In Czech, use only whitespaces to indicate groups of thousands. Administrative texts allow usage of a dot when mentioning financial amounts.
Source text: It is around 4,700 kilograms.
✘ Váží asi 4,700 kilogramů.
✓ Váží asi 4 700 kilogramů.
Source text: The total sum: 4,700,100,50 CZK.
✘ Celková částka: 4,700,100,50 Kč.
✓ Celková částka: 4.700.100,50 Kč.
✓ Celková částka: 4 700 100,50 Kč.
Pay particular attention to the translation of “bilions” in English. It should not be translated as “biliony”.
Source text: Bilions of free sudoku puzzles.
✘ Biliony sudoku zdarma.
✓ Miliardy sudoku zdarma.
English uses a period to indicate the decimal place, but Czech always uses a comma.
Source text: The value of π is 3.14.
✘ Hodnota π je 3.14.
✓ Hodnota π je 3,14.
Suffixes -ti and -mi after numerals must not be used.
Source text: For children aged 5 and above.
✘ Pro děti od 5ti let.
✘ Pro děti od 5-ti let.
✓ Pro děti od 5 let.
Symbols (%, °C, +, –, ...) are preceded by a whitespace except when it is used as an adjective. Make sure you avoid a common mistake of writing out the grammatical suffix after the numeral in these cases.
Source text: We were refunded 10%.
✘ Bylo nám vráceno 10%.
✓ Bylo nám vráceno 10 %.
Source text: Do not drink 95% alcohol.
✘ Nepijte 95 % alkohol.
✘ Nepijte 95ti % alkohol.
✓ Nepijte 95% alkohol.
Source text: The temperature rose 15°C.
✘ Teplota vzrostla o 15°C.
✓ Teplota vzrostla o 15 °C.
Source text: 1+2=3.
✓ 1 + 2 = 3.
4.1. How to use punctuation marks
- Colon | :
Use colons to introduce lists. It is always followed by a whitespace in this case.
Source text: He ate everything: pizza, chips and candy.
✘ Snědl všechno : pizzu, čipsy a sladkosti.
✘ Snědl všechno:pizzu, čipsy a sladkosti.
✘ Snědl všechno: Pizzu, čipsy a sladkosti.
✓ Snědl všechno: pizzu, čipsy a sladkosti.
When expressing a scale, it is always separated by a whitespace from both sides.
Source text: Map scale 1:50,000.
✘ Měřítko mapy: 1:50,000.
✓ Měřítko mapy: 1 : 50 000.
When referring to a sports score or time, it does not require any separator between numbers.
Source text: Ghana won 5:1.
✘ Ghana zvítězila 5 : 1.
✓ Ghana zvítězila 5:1.
Source text: She came home at 3 PM.
✘ Přišla domů v 15 : 00.
✓ Přišla domů v 15:00.
- Semicolon | ;
A semicolon is not frequently used in modern Czech texts and current usage might be considered dated. It is still common in academic texts though. It is always possible to reformulate the sentence with a use of a comma (,) or a full stop (.).
- Full stop (period) | .
A full stop marks the end of a sentence. It is followed by a single space before the next sentence. Errors arise when a full stop is used with brackets. If a full sentence beginning with a capital is enclosed in brackets, the full stop is within the brackets.
Source text: Everyone came to the conference. (I was mostly looking forward to meeting my classmates.)
✘ Na konferenci přišli všichni. (Nejvíc jsem se těšil na spolužáky).
✓ Na konferenci přišli všichni. (Nejvíc jsem se těšil na spolužáky.)
When the words enclosed in the brackets are included within another sentence, the full stop is outside the brackets.
Source text: Everyone came to the conference (my dad included).
✘ Na konferenci přišli všichni (i můj otec.)
✓ Na konferenci přišli všichni (i můj otec).
- Exclamation mark | !
An exclamation mark is used sparingly in Czech, to mark emphasis. When combined with a question mark, the exclamation mark is always written last.
Source text: You met Britney Spears?!
✘ Ty jsi potkala Britney Spears!?
✓ Ty jsi potkala Britney Spears?!
- Hyphen | -
A hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word, and to express a close relationship between two words. No whitespaces are placed between the hyphen and the words.
Source text: input-output devices
✘ vstupně - výstupní zařízení
✓ vstupně-výstupní zařízení
- En dash | –
En dash is mainly used when specifying ranges, such as time ranges or page numbers.
Source text: page 15-25
✘ str. 15-25
✓ str. 15–25
- Elipsis | …
An ellipsis is a series of three dots that usually indicate an intentional omission of a word, a sentence, or a whole section from a text without altering its original meaning. It is followed by normal interpunction but never with another full stop (which would result in four full stops).
Source text: “If you won't do it…,” said Petr.
✘ “Jestli to neuděláš…” pravil Petr.
✘ “Jestli to neuděláš… ,” pravil Petr.
✓ „Jestli to neuděláš…,“ pravil Petr.
- Quote marks | „ “ ‚ ‘
Quote marks are used to set off direct speech or a quotation. English quote marks (“…” or ‘…’) should always be replaced with their Czech counterpart: („…“ and ‚…‘)
Source text: "You are not my son."
✘ ”Nejsi můj syn.”
✓ „Nejsi můj syn.“
- Brackets | ( )
In Czech texts, round brackets are used. There is no space between the words inside the brackets.
Source text: Do not be afraid and do not steal! (T. G. Masaryk)
✘ Nebát se a nekrást! ( T. G. Masaryk )
✓ Nebát se a nekrást! (T. G. Masaryk)
4.2. Punctuation in greetings and closings
Czech has standardized rules for greetings and closings. Whether formal or informal, the initial letters of the first word in a greeting is capitalized and followed by a comma.
Source text: Dear Sir,
✘ vážený pane
✘ Vážený pane
✓ Vážený pane,
After the greetings, which end with a comma, the sentence should start with a word in lower-case unless it is a word that should be capitalized because of any other reason (e.g. proper names)
Source: Hi Eliška, Thanks for reaching out to us!
X Dobrý den, Eliško, Děkujeme, že jste se na nás obrátila.
✓ Dobrý den, Eliško, děkujeme, že jste se na nás obrátila.
The first word of a closure is capitalized as well, but it is not followed by a comma.
Source text: Best regards,
✘ s pozdravem,
✘ S Pozdravem,
✓ S pozdravem
Pay special attention to the case of a name in a greeting part. It should always be in the vocative.
Source text: Dear Sir Novák,
✘ Vážený pane Novák,
✓ Vážený pane Nováku,
5.1. Grammatical and Lexical Registers
Register refers to the level of formality used in the text. It shows how our clients address their customers and it contributes to the voice of the brand itself. Register may vary depending on the company, the brand, the service they offer, the customers, and the target language.
We make a first main distinction between grammatical and lexical register: the first one regards the use of pronouns and verb person (for the languages to which this morphological feature is applied), while the latter is related to lexical choices since some words and expressions also have a degree of formality or colloquialism.
Both these registers are also divided into formal and informal, as shown below.
5.2. Formal Register
Formal language in Czech is associated with particular choices of grammar and vocabulary. We use formal language in situations that are serious or that involve people we don’t know well. It has been standardized in the following publications: Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, Slovník spisovné češtiny and Pravidla českého pravopisu.
Please refrain from using pronouns with a capital letter. They are both correct, but it is considered dated and is only acceptable in a very formal postal/letter communication. Always consider the nature of the text you are translating.
Source text: We would like to offer you a discount.
✓ Rádi bychom Vám nabídli slevu.
✓ Rádi bychom vám nabídli slevu.
5.3. Informal Register
Informal language is more casual and spontaneous. It is used when communicating with friends or family either in writing or in conversation. It is used when writing personal emails, text messages and in some business correspondence. The tone of informal language is more personal than formal language.
Refrain from using pronouns with a capital letter in informal communication. It is considered hypercorrect.
Source text: We would like to offer you a discount.
✘ Rádi bychom Ti nabídli slevu.
✓ Rádi bychom ti nabídli slevu.
6. Localization challenges
6.1. Proper nouns
Proper nouns refer to unique entities, such as persons, places, organizations, brands, events, etc. As foreign proper nouns are concerned, languages may adopt different rules regarding whether they should be translated or kept in the original language. When editing a text, you should follow your languages rules for all different types of proper nouns listed below. However, please note that if there is a glossary provided by the client that includes these types of units, you should always apply the glossary items.
When mentioning foreign names and surnames, they have to be declined accordingly and the suffix -ová must be added to female surnames in most cases. There are few famous names’ exceptions (Edith Piaf, Marilyn Monroe), thus every case should be considered individually.
Source text: He met Angela Merkel.
✘ Setkal se s Angela Merkel.
✓ Setkal se s Angelou Merkelovou.
Source text: He met Marilyn Monroe.
✘ Setkal se s Marylin Monroeovou.
✓ Setkal se s Marylin Monroe.
Words from languages that do not use Latin script should be transcribed with Czech transcription. This is especially important for Russian, Arabic, Chinese and Japanese words. Please note that there might be some famous names that would look unnatural in Czech transcription, so you should use the most common variant.
Source text: Yoko Ono
✘ Jóko Onová
✓ Yoko Ono
Source text: Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky
✘ Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky
✓ Fjodor Michajlovič Dostojevskij
Places that come from languages with Latin scripts can be translated or left in the original form. If there is a well-known translation, feel free to use it.
Source text: They went on a trip to Regensburg.
✓ Jeli na výlet do Regensburgu.
✓ Jeli na výlet do Řezna.
Places that come from languages with non-latin scripts should always use the Czech transcription rules and not the English version.
Source text: He went on a trip to Beijing.
✘ Jel na výlet do Beijingu.
✓ Jel na výlet do Pekingu.
Source text: She went on a trip to Tokyo.
✘ Jela na výlet do Tokya.
✓ Jela na výlet do Tokia.
When translating university names, pay special attention to the origin of the university name. If it is named after a person (such as Harvard University) it should be declined as a person's name. If the university is called after a city (such as Cambridge University), it should reflect it in as well.
Source text: He is studying at Harvard University.
✘ Studuje na Harvard University.
✓ Studuje na Harvardově univerzitě.
Source text: He is studying at the University of Cambridge.
✘ Studuje na Cambridge University.
✓ Studuje na Univerzitě v Cambridgi.
✓ Studuje Cambridgeskou univerzitu.
Organizations’ names should not be translated but should be declined if possible. If the declination paradigm is not obvious, you should use a generic word before it (such as a company).
Source text: He is working for Microsoft.
✘ Pracuje v Microsoft.
✓ Pracuje v Microsoftu.
✓ Pracuje ve společnosti Microsoft.
6.1.4. Brands and products
Brands and product names should not be translated and should respect the original typography, but should be declined if possible. If the declination paradigm is not obvious, you should use a generic word before it (such as product, brand, etc.).
Source text: He buys everything Apple and plays with his new iPad every day.
✘ Kupuje všechno od Apple a hraje si s iPad každý den.
✘ Kupuje všechno od apple a hraje si s ipadem každý den.
✓ Kupuje všechno od Applu a hraje si s iPadem každý den.
✓ Kupuje všechno od společnosti Apple a hraje si s tabletem iPad každý den.
6.1.5. Other entities
Entities such as art (e.g. paintings), events (e.g. festivals, theatre plays), etc. are frequently translated and undergo declination.
Source text: She went to Italy to see the Last Supper.
✘ Jela do Itálie, aby viděla Last Supper.
✓ Jela do Itálie, aby viděla Poslední večeři.
6.2. Acronyms and initials
An acronym is a word formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase and that can be pronounced as a word (as in NATO). They are usually in capital letters. Their translation is not systematic and should be researched on a case-by-case basis. When the acronym doesn’t exist in Czech you should keep source abbreviation.
Source text: We met with a UN official.
✘ Otevřeno Setkali jsme se s úředníkem z UN.
✓ Setkali jsme se s úředníkem z OSN.
Be careful about the gender of the acronym. They are usually based on the gender of the unshortened version or are often in neutral.
Source text: FBI was investigating the case.
✘ FBI vyšetřoval případ.
✓ FBI vyšetřovala případ.
✓ FBI vyšetřovalo případ.
When an acronym is a part of a phrase, it is acceptable to use a hyphen.
Source text: UV filter
✓ UV filtr
6.3. Date format
Czech uses the format DD. MM. YYYY, with dots and whitespaces as separators. Note that the month name in Czech must not be in capital letters.
Source text: 04/20/2018
✘ 20. Dubna 2018
✓ 20. 4. 2018
✓ 20. dubna 2018
If there is a mention of a time span, it should be separated by a dash with whitespaces for better readability. Be careful not to use a hyphen (-) instead of a dash (–).
Source text: We are open 10/10/2018-10/10/2019.
✘ Otevřeno 10/10/2018-10/10/2019.
✓ Otevřeno 10. 10. 2018 – 10. 10. 2019.
✓ Otevřeno 10. října 2018 – 10. října 2019.
Pay attention when mentioning decades. There should never be a suffix following a number, and you should always use a dot as a separator.
Source text: She was born in the 80s.
✘ Narodila se v 80tých letech.
✓ Narodila se v 80. letech.
6.4. Time format
Czech time should be always stated in a 24-hour format. Use either a colon (more frequent) or a dot on the line as the separators between hours, minutes, and seconds.
Source text: He goes to sleep at 11:30 PM.
✘ Chodí spát v 11:30.
✘ Chodí spát v 11:30 PM.
✓ Chodí spát ve 23:30.
✓ Chodí spát ve 23.30.
If there is a mention of a time span, it should be separated by a dash without whitespaces. Be careful not to use a hyphen (-) instead of a dash (–).
Source text: We are open January – June, 9 AM – 6 PM.
✘ Otevřeno Leden-Červen, 9:00 AM - 6:00 PM.
✘ Otevřeno leden-červen, 9:00-18:00.
✓ Otevřeno leden–červen, 9:00–18:00.
Measures should always keep the format of the source text and should never be converted. You should only translate them when they have an equivalent term in your language.
Measures (such as inches, feet, miles, etc.) should be translated if there is an equivalent term in Czech. However, note that abbreviations should be kept (e.g. 2 ft, 20 cm). There should be a whitespace as a separator after the number. Note that if the measure is used as an adjective, whitespace separator is not used.
Source text: He is 5 feet tall.
✘ Je 5 feet vysoký.
✓ Je 5 stop vysoký.
Source text: He runs 8km every day.
✘ Každý den uběhne 8km.
✓ Každý den uběhne 8 km.
Source text: He ran a 8km race.
✘ Běžel 8mi km závod.
✘ Běžel 8 km závod.
✓ Běžel 8km závod.
When mentioning a currency, it can be used either after (more frequent) or before the number with a whitespace as a separator.
Source text: The price rises to €5,000.
✘ Cena vzrostla na 5,000€.
✓ Cena vzrostla na 5 000 €.
✓ Cena vzrostla na € 5 000.
Do not translate currency initials (USD, GBP, RUB, INR, DKK, NOK, etc.) as they are a convention accepted worldwide. You should always use a whitespace between the number and the currency initial.
Source text: The price rises to 5,000 USD.
✘ Cena vzrostla na 5,000USD.
✓ Cena vzrostla na 5 000 USD.
7. Tricky cases
- Using words díky and kvůli
When translating constructions like 'because of’, ‘thanks to’, ‘due to’, you should use the word díky only in cases that we consider beneficial.
Source text: We nailed it just because of you.
✘ Kvůli tobě jsme to skvěle zvládli.
✓ Díky tobě jsme to skvěle zvládli.
In other, unfavourable, cases kvůli should be used.
Source text: He lost his hair to the fire.
✘ Přišel o vlasy díky ohni.
✓ Přišel o vlasy kvůli ohni.
- Translating the word standard
Please, avoid a common orthographic mistake when translating the word standard. It should be always translated as standard, standardní, standardně. The word standarta exists in Czech but it conveys a meaning related to a flag used by state officials.
Source text: It is a standard procedure.
✘ Je to standarta postup.
✓ Je to standardní postup.
- Czechia, Czech Republic, Republic
Czechia should be translated as Česko. The Czech Republic can be either translated as Česká republika or Česko as well. Pay special attention to the word Republic – it should never be capitalized.
Source text: We went to Czechia.
✘ Jeli jsme do České republiky.
✓ Jeli jsme do Česka.
Source text: We went to the Czech Republic.
✘ Jeli jsme do České Republiky.
✓ Jeli jsme do Česka.
✓ Jeli jsme do České republiky.
8. Useful online resources
Czech grammar guide
English verb conjugator
English grammar guide